A Biblical Worldview

Christian-worldview     A worldview is a biased perspective on life.  It is a mental framework of beliefs that guide our understanding of what is.  It’s the assumptions we employ to help us make sense of the world, ourselves, and our experiences.  Early in life—when our perception of the world is being shaped—we are influenced by the worldviews of family, friends, and surrounding culture.  As we grow older, we are confronted with different and opposing worldviews via religious and educational institutions, literature, movies, music and art.  At some point in our development—it’s different for each person—we choose what we believe and why.  Our worldview is important because it’s the basis for our values which directs our behavior, relationships, money habits, social and political decisions, and everything we do.  A well developed worldview considers the existence of God (Person or force?), the origin of the universe (intelligent creation or accidental bang?), human existence (where we came from and what we are?), the purpose for life (do we exist for a reason or by chance?), human morals (are values absolute or relative?), the problem of evil (is evil real or merely a construct of the mind), and the future (heaven/hell or nothing).  A biblical worldview answers all these concerns.  Here are some considerations regarding a biblical worldview:

     Berenstain Bear's Naturalistic WorldviewFaith is at the heart of the biblical worldview. Every worldview operates with some faith assumptions.  Even the atheist has faith, most of them believing the universe began with a spontaneous bang and that everything is the product of matter, motion, time and chance.  They believe this beyond scientific verification (which requires observation and repeatable testing).  This purely materialistic worldview is sometimes found even in children’s literature such as the Berenstain Bears Nature Guide, which states that nature is “all that is, or was, or ever will be.”[1]  The biblical worldview operates by faith, and our faith is rooted in Scripture which provides insights into realities we could never know, except that God has spoken.  “By faith we understand that the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible” ( 11:3).  Developing a comprehensive and consistent biblical worldview takes a lifetime of learning and living (Rom. 12:1-2; 2 Tim. 3:16-17; 1 Pet. 2:2; 2 Pet. 3:18).  The final objective of a biblical worldview is love for God, love for others, and submission to the Lordship of Jesus Christ. 

     The Bible reveals the existence of God (Gen. 1:1) and portrays Him as Creator (Gen. 1:1-2:25). It also reveals His character, what He has done in history, what He is doing now and what He will do in the future.  God exists as Trinity ( 28:19; 2 Cor. 13:14; 1 Pet. 1:2): God the Father (Gal. 1:1; Eph. 6:23; Phil. 2:11), God the Son (John 1:1, 14:18; 8:58; 20:28; Col. 2:9; Heb. 1:8), and God the Holy Spirit (Acts 5:3-4; 1 Corinthians 2:11-12; 2 Corinthians 13:14).  All three Persons are co-equal, co-infinite, co-eternal, and worthy of all praise and service.  The three Persons of the God-head are one in essence (Deut. 6:4; Isa. 43:10; 44:6-8; 45:5, 18), sharing the exact same attributes.[2] 

     My Havanese - AriGod created the universe in six literal days (Gen. 1-2; Ex. 20:8-11). He created an open universe in which He continually operates in every detail, involving Himself in people’s lives, directing history for His glory.  The Lord assigns value and purpose to all His creation, whether rock or flower, wind or rain, light or darkness, cat or dog, etc.  From the biblical perspective I perceive my little Havanese as a part of God’s creation, having design and purpose because God created her to be what she is.  I know “a righteous man has regard for the life of his animal” (Pro 12:10); therefore, I feel responsible to care for my little dog.  “The character of a man is seen in the way he treats those under his care or at his mercy, even when they are animals.  This verse demonstrates that we are responsible to have dominion over the animals, while doing so in a way that reflects the tenderness of our Creator (Ps. 104:14, 27; 145:16; 147:8-9).”[3]

     God created mankind in His image, to think, feel and act (Gen. 1:26-27). God also created mankind for a purpose, to have a relationship with Him and other people, and to exercise responsible dominion over His creation, caring for plants and animals ( 1:26-30; cf. Deut. 25:4; Prov. 12:10).  As God’s unique creatures we find ourselves naturally bent Bookstoward art, music, literature, philosophy, science, mathematics, architecture, sports, and other activities that enrich the soul and glorify the Lord.  The Christian can engage in art and science to the glory of God, as this is consistent with Scripture.  As Christians living in God’s world, and understanding what the Scripture teaches about His creation, we are able to make sense of the world around us and enjoy the creation as God intended.  Knowing Scripture also allows us to understand and reject the sinful perversions of the arts and sciences that fallen men have corrupted.  Without God and Scripture to guide and give man purpose, man’s uniqueness is lost in the universe, as he is ultimately of no greater value than what he paints on the canvass or studies under the microscope.  Biblical thinkers know this to be true; because if there is no God and man is not unique (as the Bible teaches), then he is of no greater value than the tree, the rock, or the worm on a hook.  If there is no God, then man is a zero.  When he dies, his biological life is consumed by the material universe from which he came.  Consider this view of death by the atheist John Updike:

Without warning, David was visited by an exact vision of death: a long hole in the ground, no wider than your body, down which you were drawn while the white faces above recede. You try to reach them but your arms are pinned. Shovels pour dirt in your face. There you will be forever, in an upright position, blind and silent, and in time no one will remember you, and you will never be called by any angel. As strata of rock shift, your fingers elongate, and your teeth are distended sideways in a great underground grimace indistinguishable from a strip of chalk. And the earth tumbles on, and the sun expires, an unaltering darkness reigns where once there were stars.[4]

     God is the absolute standard for right and wrong, and He expects mankind to conform to that which He has revealed about Himself in Scripture (Ps. 11:7; 34:15-16; Lam. 1:18; Dan. 9:14; Hos. 14:9; Zep. 3:4). If there is no God, and no written revelation of His character and will, then men are left only with their conflicting opinions and there is no final arbiter to determine what is right or what is wrong.  However, God has spoken in the Bible, and what He says about men and their actions is the final basis for correct thinking concerning morals and behavior. 

     Evil exists in connection with the willful creatures who produce it. Evil first came into existence in the angelic realm when Lucifer rebelled against God (Isa. 14:12-14; Ezek. 28:12-18).  Adam and Eve introduced sin and evil into the human realm when they followed Satan and rebelled against God (Gen. 2:16-17; 3:1-7).  All humanity is corrupt in Adam, inclined toward sin, spiritually dead and powerless to change their spiritually fallen condition (Rom. 3:23; 5:6-12; 1 Cor. 15:21-22).  God alone corrects the problem of sin and evil through the cross of Christ.  Evil will come to an end in the eternal state when God destroys the current heavens and earth and creates a new heavens and earth where righteousness dwells (2 Pet. 3:13; Rev. 20:10-15; 21-22). 

     God is actively involved in the affairs of mankind. God has an agenda, a plan He formed before the creation of the world, and He is currently executing that plan according to His sovereign will and for His own glory (Ps. 33:11; Isa. 14:24; 25:1; 46:9-11).  Within God’s plan, He extends hope for the lost.  The Bible reveals God’s plan of salvation through His Son, Jesus Christ, who took upon Himself true humanity (Gen. 3:15; John 1:1, 14), born of a virgin (Isa. 7:14; Matt. 1:18-25), lived righteously according to the Mosaic Law (Matt. 5:17-19; Gal. 4:4), never sinned (Heb. 4:15), died a substitutionary death on a cross (Mark 10:45; Rom. 5:8), was buried and rose to life on the third day (1 Cor. 15:3-4), and ascended to heaven where He is currently interceding for the saints (Acts 1:10-11; Rom. 8:34).  Salvation is a gracious and free gift to all who will accept it by faith alone in Christ alone (John 3:16; 1 Cor. 15:3-4; Gal. 2:16; Eph. 2:8-9; Phil. 3:9; Tit. 3:5).

     Jesus Christ will return again to rule the earth (Rev. 19:11-16; 20:1-6). There is a future hope for those who trust Christ as Savior and look forward to His return in which He suppresses all sinful rebellion and establishes His reign on the earth.  This will be a time of righteousness and goodness for all those under Christ’s rule (2 Pet. 3:13; Rev. 20:1-6). 

     In summary, the biblical worldview considers the major issues of life and provides the most comprehensive answer for what is.  We should not think of the biblical worldview as merely an academic exercise to answer our burning questions.  No.  There is real life application for the biblical worldview, which should produce in us a love and appreciation for God, love for others, and submission to the Lordship of Jesus Christ. 

Steven R. Cook, M. Div.

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[1] Stan and Jan Berenstain, The Bears’ Nature Guide (New York, NY, Random House, 1975), 6.

[2] God is all-knowing (Ps. 139:1-6; Matt. 6:31-33), all-present (Ps. 139:7-12; Heb. 13:5), all-powerful (Job 42:2; Isa. 40:28-29), sovereign (1 Chron. 29:11; Dan. 4:35; Acts 17:24-25), righteous (Ps. 11:7; 119:137), just (Ps. 9:7-8; 19:9; 50:6; 58:11),holy (Ps. 99:9), immutable (Ps. 102:26, 27; Mal. 3:6), truthful (2 Sam. 7:28; John 17:17; 1 John 5:20), loving (Jer. 31:3; 1 John 4:7-12, 16), faithful (Deut. 7:9; Lam. 3:23; 1 John 1:9), merciful(Ps. 86:15; Luke 6:36; Tit. 3:5), gracious (Ps. 111:4; 116:5; 1 Pet. 5:10), and eternal (Deut. 33:27; 1 Tim. 1:17).

[3] John A. Kitchen, Proverbs: A Mentor Commentary (Scotland, Great Britain, Christian Focus Publications, 2006), 267.

[4] John Updike, Pigeon Feathers (New York, NY, Random House Publishers, 1975), 17.

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Do God’s People Ever Behave Poorly?

     Yes.  There are times we behave poorly.  As a Christian, there are times I behave poorly toward God by refusing to do His will (James 4:17).  There are times I behave poorly toward other Christians by not modeling the love or grace or truth that should characterize a growing believer.  And, there are times I behave poorly toward unbelievers by not modeling the love or grace or truth that reveals God to them.  Though I have eternal life by faith in Christ (John 3:16; 10:28), and am among the Lord’s righteous (2 Cor. 5:21; Phil. 3:9), I still sin (1 John 1:8, 10).  As a believer, Solomon understood “there is not a righteous man on earth who continually does good and who never sins” (Eccl. 7:20).  There are numerous biblical examples of believers who behaved poorly. 

Old Testament examples include:

  1. Lot’s daughters got him drunk and slept with him (Gen. 19:30-38).
  2. Judah slept with Tamar, assuming she was a prostitute (Gen. 38:13-18).
  3. Aaron led the Israelites in idol worship (Ex. 32:1-6).
  4. Samson slept with prostitutes (Judg. 16:1-4).
  5. David had an affair with Bathsheba and murdered her husband Uriah (2 Sam. 11:1-21).
  6. Solomon ended his life worshipping idols (1 Kings 11:1-10).

New Testament examples include:

  1. James and John (nicknamed Boanerges, or “Sons of Thunder”; Mark 3:17) wanted to call fire down from heaven to kill the residents of a Samaritan city (Luke 9:51-55).
  2. The mother of James and John requested special treatment for her sons, that they might have a place of prominence seated on thrones to the right and left of Jesus (Matt. 20:20-21). This upset the other disciples (Matt. 20:24).
  3. The disciples tried to send away a woman who had come to Jesus for help with her demon possessed daughter (Matt. 15:21-23).
  4. The disciples tried to prevent a man from doing the Lord’s work (Luke 9:49-50).
  5. The disciples argued amongst themselves as to who was greatest in the kingdom (Luke 9:46).
  6. Peter argued with Jesus and tried to prevent Him from going to the cross (Matt. 16:21-22). The Lord reproached Peter sharply (Matt. 16:23).
  7. Peter denied the Lord three times (Matt. 26:34-35; 69-75).
  8. Paul and Barnabas had a sharp disagreement that resulted in their separation as friends in ministry (Acts 15:36-39).
  9. The Christians at Corinth were guilty of quarrels (1 Cor. 1:11), jealousy and strife (1 Cor. 3:1-3), fornication (1 Cor. 5:1-2), selfishness and drunkenness (1 Cor. 11:21). 
  10. Peter engaged in hypocrisy and was publicly rebuked by Paul (Gal. 2:11-14).
  11. The Apostle John was twice corrected for worshipping an angel (Rev. 19:10; 22:8-9). John knew the depravity of his own heart and how easy it is to fall into idolatry, and he cautioned other Christians to “guard yourselves from idols” (1 John 5:21). 

Five of the seven churches mentioned in Revelation 2 and 3 behaved poorly by not doing God’s will, and the Lord Jesus reprimanded them. 

  1. Church at Ephesus – “you have left your first love” (Rev 2:4).
  2. Church at Pergamum – “you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who kept teaching Balak to put a stumbling block before the sons of Israel, to eat things sacrificed to idols and to commit acts of immorality” (Rev 2:14).
  3. Church at Thyatira – “you tolerate the woman Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess, and she teaches and leads My bond-servants astray so that they commit acts of immorality and eat things sacrificed to idols” (Rev 2:20).
  4. Church at Sardis – “I have not found your deeds completed in the sight of My God” (Rev 3:2).
  5. Church at Laodicea – “I know your deeds, that you are neither cold nor hot; I wish that you were cold or hot” (Rev 3:15).

     Though there are numerous examples of believers, both in the Old and New Testament, who behaved poorly toward God, other believers, and unbelievers, this is never what God expects from us.  As His children, God calls us to live holy and righteous lives (Tit. 2:11-14), to manifest love (1 Thess. 4:9), grace (Eph. 4:29), and truth to others (Eph. 4:15).  When we fail, we should humbly confess our sins and move on (1 John 1:9), as we keep striving to know God and walk in His will (2 Tim. 3:16-17; 1 Pet. 2:2; 2 Pet. 3:18). 

Steven R. Cook, M. Div.

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Essentials of the Christian Faith

The essentials of the Christian faith consist of core doctrines taught in Scripture.  To depart from one or all of these doctrines is to be outside Christian orthodoxy.  Christians may disagree about non-essential doctrines (i.e. the rapture, millennial reign of Jesus, baptism, church government, etc.), and still be regarded as part of the church, the body of Christ (Eph. 1:22-23).  I like the statement, in essentials unity, in non-essentials liberty, and in all things love.  The central doctrines of the Christian faith are:

  1. The inerrancy and infallibility of Scripture.
  2. One God exists as Trinity.
  3. Jesus is fully God and Man.
  4. Jesus willingly died a substitutionary atoning death.
  5. Jesus resurrected bodily, ascended to heaven, and will return for His people.
  6. Salvation is by grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ alone.

open-bibleThe Bible – Scripture is God’s inerrant and enduring written revelation that tells us who He is and what He’s accomplished in time and space.  The Bible does not reveal all there is to know about God or His plans and actions, but only what He deems important (Deut. 29:29).  Scripture was written by approximately forty human authors spanning nearly sixteen hundred years.  The human authors—without forfeiting their personal literary style—wrote under the direction and superintending care of God the Holy Spirit (Ex. 17:14; 34:27; Isa. 30:8; Jer. 30:2; Luke 1:3; 1 Cor. 14:37; Rev. 1:11), so that what is written is the inerrant and infallible “word of God” (1 Thess. 2:13; cf. Ps. 12:6-7; Rom. 15:4; 2 Tim. 3:16-17; 2 Pet. 1:20).  Some of the various literary styles include historical narrative, law, poetry, psalms, proverbs, parables, and symbolism.  Nearly one fourth of Scripture was/is prophecy.  The Bible is written in propositional terms and understood and accepted by those whom the Holy Spirit illumines (1 Cor. 2:14-16; 2 Cor. 3:14-16; 4:3-4).  Our spiritual sanctification depends on Scripture (John 17:17; 1 Pet. 2:2; 2 Pet. 3:18).  Christians do not worship the Bible, but neither can we worship God without it (John 4:24).

Ancient Diagram of the TrinityThe Trinity – There is one God who exists as three distinct Persons within the Trinity (Matt. 28:19; 2 Cor. 13:14; 1 Pet. 1:2): God the Father (Gal. 1:1; Eph. 6:23; Phil. 2:11), God the Son (John 1:1, 14:18; 8:58; 20:28; Col. 2:9; Heb. 1:8), and God the Holy Spirit (Acts 5:3-4; 1 Corinthians 2:11-12; 2 Corinthians 13:14).  All three are co-equal, co-infinite, co-eternal, and worthy of all praise and service.  The three Persons of the God-head are one in essence (Deut. 6:4; Isa. 43:10; 44:6-8; 45:5, 18).  God is all-knowing (Ps. 139:1-6; Matt. 6:31-33), all-present (Ps. 139:7-12; Heb. 13:5), all-powerful (Job 42:2; Isa. 40:28-29), sovereign (1 Chron. 29:11; Dan. 4:35; Acts 17:24-25), righteous (Ps. 11:7; 119:137), just (Ps. 9:7-8; 19:9; 50:6; 58:11), holy (Ps. 99:9), immutable (Ps. 102:26, 27; Mal. 3:6), truthful (2 Sam. 7:28; John 17:17; 1 John 5:20), loving (Jer. 31:3; 1 John 4:7-12, 16), faithful (Deut. 7:9; Lam. 3:23; 1 John 1:9), merciful (Ps. 86:15; Luke 6:36; Tit. 3:5), gracious (Ps. 111:4; 116:5; 1 Pet. 5:10), and eternal (Deut. 33:27; 1 Tim. 1:17).

Hypostatic Union DiagramThe Deity/Humanity of Jesus – At a point in time, the eternal Son of God added humanity to Himself, simultaneously being God and man, Creator and creature, theanthropic (John 1:1, 14:18; 8:58; 20:28; Col. 2:9; Heb. 1:8).  Jesus is the God-man (John 1:1, 14).  Jesus exists in hypostatic union, as a single Person with a divine and human nature (John 1:1, 14; 1 John 4:2-3), both natures being distinct and preserved, not mixed or confused, fully God and fully man.  The hypostatic union is forever, from conception onward.  Jesus was supernaturally conceived by the Holy Spirit in the womb of the virgin Mary (parthenogenesis – Isaiah 7:14; Matthew 1:23; Luke 1:26-38), who is the mother of Jesus’ humanity (christotokos – bearer of Christ).  Jesus was born a son of Abraham, in the line David (Matt. 1:1), without a human father and without sin (2 Cor. 5:21; Heb. 4:15; 1 Pet. 2:22; 1 John 3:5).  The baby Jesus grew in wisdom (Luke 2:40, 52), and lived a sinless and righteous life before God and man.  In His humanity, Jesus walked in perfect conformity to God the Father’s holy character and divine revelation. 

The Cross of ChristSubstitutionary Atonement – God the Son became man that He might redeem fallen humanity from sin and death (Mark 10:45).  The Bible reveals, “In Him we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace” (Eph. 1:7; cf. Col. 1:13-14; 1 Pet. 1:18-19).  In Jerusalem, on April 3, A.D. 33, Jesus willingly laid down His life and died a substitutionary atoning death on a cross (John 3:16; 10:11, 17-18).  He died a death He did not deserve, “the just for the unjust, so that He might bring us to God” (1 Pet. 3:18).  Jesus’ death forever satisfied every righteous demand God had toward our sin (Rom. 3:24-25; Heb. 10:10-14; 1 John 2:2; 4:10), and is the basis for forgiveness and reconciliation to God (Rom. 5:1-2; 2 Cor. 5:21; Eph. 1:7; Col. 1:13-14; 20-22).  Christ died for the sins of everyone (Heb. 2:9; 1 John 2:2; 4:10), but only those who trust Jesus as their Savior will know eternal life (John 3:16, 20:31).  Salvation is never accomplished by what a person does for God, but rather, what God has accomplished for him through the Person and work of Jesus Christ who died for his sins (John 3:16), and gives him eternal life and righteousness (John 10:28; Phil. 3:9).

Empty TombThe Bodily Resurrection, Ascension, and Return of Jesus – After His death on the cross, Jesus was buried and resurrected bodily on the third day (Matt. 20:18-19; Acts 10:39-41; 1 Cor. 15:3-4, 20), never to die again (Rom. 5:9).   After forty days, Jesus ascended bodily to heaven (Acts 1:3-10), with a promise of a physical return (Acts 1:9-11).  The rapture of the church—which precedes Jesus’ Second Coming—is the next prophetic event to occur in history (1 Thess. 4:13-18; Tit. 2:13).  The rapture of the church is a world-changing event in which the bodies of deceased Christians are resurrected (1 Thess. 4:13-18) and the bodies of living Christians are transformed and removed from the world (1 Cor. 15:51-52; 1 Thess. 4:17), meeting the Lord in the air and going to heaven to be with God forever (John 14:1-3).  The rapture will be followed by seven years of worldwide tribulation (Dan. 9:24-27; Matt. 24-25; Rev. 6-20), culminating in the triumphal return of Jesus as the King of kings, and Lord of lords (Rev. 19:11-16).  After His second coming, Jesus will judge the nations of the world (Matt. 25:31-46), and establish a future reign in righteousness in Jerusalem, on the throne of David (2 Sam. 7:12, 16; Ps. 89:36-37; Isa. 9:6-7; Luke 1:31-33; Rev. 20:1-6).  After His reign, Jesus will judge all unbelievers (Rev. 20:11-15), and then make a “new heavens and a new earth, in which righteousness dwells” (2 Pet. 3:13; cf. Rev. 21-22).

The Gospel of GraceSalvation by Grace alone, through Faith alone, in Christ alone – Jesus is the only Savior for mankind, for “there is salvation in no one else; for there is no other name under heaven that has been given among men by which we must be saved” (Act 4:12).  God’s provision of salvation from eternal death was paid in full by the Lord Jesus Christ who willingly shed His blood and died on a cross, atoning for every human sin.  Because of sin, every person is spiritually dead and powerless to change their situation (Rom. 5:6-10; Eph. 2:1-3).  Good works have no saving merit (Isa. 64:6; Gal. 2:16; Eph. 2:8-9; Tit. 3:5).  Salvation is offered to helpless, ungodly, sinners (John 3:16-18; Rom. 5:6-10; Eph. 2:1-2; 8-9), and is received by grace alone (Rom. 4:1-5; Eph. 2:8-9), through faith alone (Gal. 2:16; 3:26; Eph. 2:8-9; Tit. 3:5), in Christ alone (John 14:6; Acts 4:12; 1 Corinthians 15:1-4).  Salvation is “the gift of God” (Eph. 2:8), and is “according to His mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit” (Tit. 3:5).  God has prepared good works to follow our salvation (Eph. 2:10), but they are never the condition of it (Acts 16:30-31; Eph. 2:8-9; 2 Tim. 1:9; Tit. 3:5).  The matter is simple: Salvation only comes to those who believe in Christ as their Savior (John 3:16; 20:31; Acts 16:30-31). 

Steven R. Cook, M. Div.

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The Work of the Holy Spirit

The Light of God's WordThe dynamic of the believer’s spiritual walk is predicated to a certain degree on how much Bible knowledge resides in his soul. He cannot live what he does not know, and knowing God’s word necessarily precedes living His will. Knowing God’s word does not guarantee a spiritual walk, as the believer may follow the world rather than the Holy Spirit (Jas. 4:17; 1 Jo. 2:15). However, he cannot be spiritual without some knowledge of Scripture, and the more he knows, the more he’s able to surrender his life to God.

       Understanding the work of Holy Spirit in the dispensation of Grace enables the believer to live the spiritual life. The Mosaic Law system is not the rule of life for the church age believer, and sadly, too many Christians seek to live by it. How the Holy Spirit worked in the life of saints under the Mosaic Law is vastly different than how He works in the life of the believer today. For example, under the dispensation of the Mosaic Law the Holy Spirit indwelt and empowered only a few believers such as Artisans (Ex. 31:1-5), Judges (Num. 11:25-29; Jud. 3:9-10), Prophets (Ezek. 2:2), and Kings (1 Sam. 10:6; 16:13); however, in the dispensation of Grace, every believer in the church is indwelt by Him (John 14:16-17; Romans 5:5; 8:9; 1 Cor. 6:19). Also, under the dispensation of the Mosaic Law, the Holy Spirit could be taken from a believer as an act of discipline (1 Sam. 16:14-16), but this cannot happen to the believer under the dispensation of Grace, as the Christian is permanently sealed with the Holy Spirit Himself (Eph. 1:13-14; 4:30). Under the previous dispensation David could petition the Lord and ask Him not to “take Thy Holy Spirit from me” (Ps. 51:11); but no church age believer should pray such a prayer, since the Holy Spirit does not leave when sin is produced. The sinning Christian may “grieve” and/or “quench” the Holy Spirit when sin is accomplished, and this he is commanded not to do (Eph. 4:30; 1 Thess. 5:19); but the disobedient Christian does not live under threat of losing the Holy Spirit if he fails to yield to the will of God. Certainly the Lord can and does discipline the erring child (Heb. 12:6), but not with the removal of the Holy Spirit, as was true under the previous dispensation.

       Jesus communicated these differences regarding the work of the Holy Spirit and prophesied that after His resurrection the Holy Spirit would be given to all believers to indwell them (Jo. 7:37-39; 14:16-17, 26; 16:13; Acts 1:5; 2:1-4). An important note to observe is the fact that Jesus referred to the coming ministry of the Holy Spirit as future from His resurrection (Acts 1:5; 2:1-4). This shows that what the Holy Spirit is doing in the Church age is distinct from what He did in the lives of some of the saints in the previous dispensation.  The Holy Spirit is working in the lives of two groups of people: unbelievers and believers. Regarding unbelievers and the world it is stated that He is:

  1. Convicting unbelievers of “sin, righteousness, and judgment” (John 16:8-11).
  2. Restraining sin in the world (2 Thess. 2:7).

       The Christian operating on the authority of Scripture knows the Holy Spirit is working in the heart of the unbeliever to convince him of “sin, righteousness, and judgment.” This convincing work of the Spirit regarding Christ, His work, and future judgment may be suppressed by the unbeliever—like other forms of God’s revelation—but it cannot be stopped. It is not the Christian’s place to convince the unsaved person about Christ’s Person and work, but simply to present the facts of Scripture and trust the Holy Spirit to illumine and persuade. Failure to understand what the Holy Spirit is doing in the lives of unbelievers may lead an ignorant believer to assume the Holy Spirit’s convicting work, and this results in frustration since the Christian is in no way equipped or commanded to tackle this momentous task.

       It is reported in Scripture that the Holy Spirit is now restraining sin in the world until the Church is taken to heaven at the Rapture (2 Thess. 2:7; cf. 1 Thess. 4:13-18). The terrible darkness that will consume the world when the restraining work of the Holy Spirit ends is manifest in the lives of those living during the time of the seven year Tribulation (Rev. 6-19; cf. 2 Thess. 2:3-12). It is obvious that there is much sin in the world now, and it staggers the imagination to try to comprehend how bad it will be after the Holy Spirit’s restraining ministry ends.

The Holy Spirit dwells within each ChristianOnce a person believes in Jesus for salvation, he is then delivered “from the domain of darkness, and transferred…to the kingdom of His beloved Son” (Col. 1:13). This transference is instantaneous and permanent, and is understood as the work of the Holy Spirit at salvation. Once saved, the Holy Spirit permanently indwells the Christian (1 Cor. 6:19; Eph. 1:13-14), makes him a “new creature” in Christ Jesus (1 Cor. 5:17), and gives him the spiritual capacity to live righteously (Rom. 6:11-14). The Holy Spirit then works to form the character of Christ in him, which is understood as the work of the Holy Spirit after salvation. Some of the works of the Holy Spirit in the life of the believer are as follows:

At salvation:

  1. Regeneration (John 3:6; 2 Cor. 5:17; Col. 2:13).
  2. Indwelling each believer (John 14:16-17; Rom. 5:5; 8:9; 1 Cor. 6:19).
  3. Baptizing into union with Christ (1 Cor. 12:13; Gal. 3:27).
  4. Sealing each believer with Himself (Eph. 4:30).
  5. Providing eternal life (John 3:16).
  6. Imputing Christ’s righteousness (2 Cor. 5:21; Phil. 3:9).
  7. Blessing with every spiritual blessing (Eph. 1:3).
  8. Providing a spiritual gift for the edification of the church (1 Cor. 12:4-7).

After salvation:

  1. Glorifying Jesus in the believer’s life (John 16:14).
  2. Teaching directly through the Word and gifted speakers (John 16:13-15; Eph. 4:11-16).
  3. Recalling Scripture to mind (John 14:26; 16:13).
  4. Filling (empowering and guiding) (Eph. 5:18).
  5. Sustaining spiritual walk (Gal. 5:16, 25).
  6. Illuminating the mind and making Scripture understandable (1 Cor. 2:11-13).
  7. Promoting the use of the believer’s spiritual gift (Rom. 12:6-8; 1 Cor. 12:4-10, 28-30; Eph. 4:11).

       The works of the Holy Spirit at salvation are once for all, and occur immediately when faith is placed in Jesus as Savior. In contrast, the works of the Holy Spirit after salvation are regularly repeated in the believer’s life, and require a volitional response to the Spirit’s leading. The Holy Spirit seeks to guide the believer into God’s will, but does not force compliance.  The above lists of the ministry of the Holy Spirit in the life of the believer are not exhaustive, but are representative of the major aspects of His work.

Steven R. Cook, M. Div.

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The Purpose of Life

     There comes a time in the lives of most people when they ask themselves “why am I here?” and “what is the purpose of my life?”  These are simple questions.  They are profound questions.  They are questions we can ask over and over, and spend a lifetime pondering.  To answer the questions, we must consider where we came from (origins), who/what we are (identity), and where we are going (eternity).  There are two major answers. 

  1. God does not exist and we are the accidental product of matter, motion, and time. Human worth is not intrinsic, but is arbitrarily assigned by self or others, and is most often predicated on personal likes and dislikes (i.e. personality or performance).  The existentialist believes we create meaning by an act of the will.  The hedonist argues we should avoid pain and resort to pleasure to cope with the emptiness of life.
  2. God exists and is the source of all purpose and meaning. We are created in the image of God (Gen. 1:27; Gen. 9:6; Jam. 3:9), with intelligence and volition.  Human worth is intrinsic, being imputed by God, not based on our personality or performance.  God created us for purpose, to have a relationship with Him and to walk Him.  God created us to have responsible dominion over His creation and to enjoy the blessing of His provisions (Gen. 1:26-30).  God, who creates and controls our destiny, provides a future hope for all who trust in Christ as Savior (John 3:16; 14:1-3).

     The Bible provides the best explanation for the origin of the universe, mankind, and our purpose in life.  It does not answer every question, but it does answer the important ones. From Scripture we understand God created the universe and all the creatures in it (Gen. 1-2; Heb. 11:3).  The creation glorifies God by being and doing what He intended (Ps. 19:1-2).  All three members of the Trinity were involved in the creation of Adam and Eve, who were uniquely created in God’s image (Heb. צֶלֶם tselem).  Adam and Eve were created with intelligence, volition, and purpose.  They were created for a relationship; first with God, then with each other, then the animals and world around them.  God created Adam to be a servant-ruler over His creation (Gen. 1:26-28), to cultivate and keep the garden as a work-assignment (Gen. 2:5, 15), to name the animals (Gen. 2:19-20), to enjoy the vegetation as food (Gen. 1:29; 2:16), and to fellowship with Eve who was to help him fulfill God’s will (Gen. 2:18, 21-24).  Adam and Eve were created to function as a unit, to complement each other, walking in the same direction, listening to God’s word, doing God’s work, enjoying God’s provision, and together abstaining from what would injure their relationship with the Lord (Gen. 2:17).  They had a clear sense of purpose under the authority of God.  Sin damaged the relationship between God and mankind (Gen. 3:1-8), as well as the physical world (Gen. 3:9-24; Rom. 8:19-23).  All of Adam and Eve’s descendants inherited a sinful nature and live in a fallen world that is temporarily under Satan’s dominion (Acts 26:18; Col. 1:13-14).  Our sinful propensity constantly pushes us to operate independently of God, using His resources for our own sinful purposes (e.g. Tower of Babel, Gen. 11:1-9).  However, human worth continues because the image of God—though marred—is retained (Gen. 9:6; Jam. 3:9).  This is why God requires just punishment for those who unjustly kill others (Gen. 9:6; Rom. 13:3-4). 

     Though humanity is corrupted because of sin (Gen. 3:1-24), God still loves us (John 3:16-17), and by faith we can accept our value as human beings made in His image (Gen. 1:26-28; 9:6; Jam. 3:9).  We can also learn to be content in our circumstances by trusting God to direct our lives (Prov. 3:5-6; Rom. 8:28; Phil. 4:11-13).  Our human experience is optimized when we are made spiritually alive (1 Pet. 1:3, 23), and when we walk with God and glorify Him in all things (1 Cor. 10:31; Eph. 2:10; 4:1-3).

     What is our eternal future?  Scripture reveals every person will be resurrected physically and will either spend eternity in heaven with God (Dan. 12:1-2; 1 Cor. 15:51–53; 1 Thess. 4:14–17; Rev. 20:4-6), or the Lake of Fire away from Him (Rev. 20:11-15).  God loves us and desires to have a relationship with us in time and eternity (John 3:16-17; 10:28; 14:1-3).  However, our sin separates us from God (Isa. 59:2; John 8:24; Rom. 5:12).  But God, who is merciful (Eph. 2:3-5; Tit. 3:5), dealt with our sin once and for all when He sent Jesus as a substitutionary atoning sacrifice to die in our place and pay the penalty for our sins (Isa. 53:1-12; Mark 10:45; 2 Cor. 5:21; Heb. 10:10-14; 1 Pet. 2:24; 3:18).  At the cross, God satisfied all His righteous demands toward our sin (1 John 2:2; 4:10).  Those who believe in Jesus as their Savior receive forgiveness (Eph. 1:7; Col. 2:13-14), the gifts of eternal life and righteousness (John 10:28; 2 Cor. 5:21; Phil. 3:9), and will spend eternity in heaven with God (John 14:1-3; 2 Cor. 5:1-5; Phil. 3:20-21).  Those who reject Jesus as their Savior have no future hope and will spend eternity away from God in eternal punishment (John 3:18, 36; Rev. 20:14-15).  When we turn to Christ as our Savior, we have a bright eternal destiny assured for us in heaven (1 Pet. 1:3-4). 

Steven R. Cook, M. Div.

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Christians in America

       Open BibleOver the years I’ve had discussions with Christians in America who have made the mistake of thinking we are a Christian nation.  The two words Christian and nation are never united in Scripture, nor should they be.  America is a great nation in many ways and I love my freedoms, but it is not a Christian nation.  The concept of a Christian nation is nowhere found in Scripture.  It is true that some of America’s founding fathers where Christians who lived within a biblical worldview, but some were Unitarians (who deny the Trinity), and others were Deists (who deny God’s sovereign involvement in creation).  Often those who argue that America is a Christian Nation selectively cite the founding fathers, but rarely, if ever, cite Scripture.  The Bible alone must guide our faith and conduct.  The Church is a biblical concept, but a Christian Nation is not.  A Christian is one who has trusted in the Lord Jesus as his Savior and received forgiveness of sins (Eph. 1:7), the gift of eternal life (John 3:16; 10:28), and the imputation of God’s righteousness (Rom. 5:17; 2 Cor. 5:21).  A local church consists of Christians who gather on a regular basis for Bible study, fellowship, partaking of the Lord’s Supper and prayer (Acts 2:42).  America is not a giant church made up of Christians.  

…the locus of God’s people under the new covenant is not a nation, and every attempt to establish a unified “Christian nation,” where the respective boundaries of church and state are made to coalesce, has not only been misconceived but has resulted in disastrous failure.[1]

       Scripture never directs the Christian to establish Christian laws for any nation.  Scripture calls us to proclaim the message of Christianity and to win men with words, never social or political force.  We have failed as Christians as soon as we seek to politicize our message and control others through legislative means.  If Christians want to have a lasting impact on a nation, it must be done at the grassroots level through evangelization, not legislation.  It must done through sharing the gospel and teaching Christian virtues that are applied to all of life, not by a forced morality imposed through the halls of congress. 

       Historically, Christians in America have been a positive influence in society by promoting law and being charitable to the needy (Gal. 2:10; Jam. 1:27).  They’ve built schools, hospitals, orphanages and other helpful organizations that lift man up.  They’ve fed the hungry, cared for the sick, housed the homeless, provided for widows and orphans, and visited prisoners with the gospel.  Christians have also promoted art, literature, music and science.  Certainly there have been abuses in the name of Christianity; however, the historical record speaks favorably about Christian service.  For the most part, believers have obeyed Scripture and become law abiding citizens rather than rebels.  Scripture teaches Christians to think of government as a “minister of God” (Rom. 13:4), to obey leaders (Rom. 13:1, 5; Tit. 3:1; 1 Pet. 2:13-15), pay taxes (Rom. 13:6), regard rulers as “servants of God” who do His will (Rom. 13:6), and to pray for them (1 Tim. 2:1-2).  We realize there is a legitimate sense in which the leaders of this world accomplish God’s purposes by keeping harmony and promoting justice (Rom. 13:2-4; 6-7).  We do not blindly submit to their authority and should say no to governmental leaders when they command us to go against the commands of God (see Dan. 3:1-18; 6:1-13; Acts 4:19-20; 5:28-29).  The Christian obeys or defies human authority only as the Bible directs.  Ultimately, those who obey God’s Word prove to be a blessing that promotes righteousness within a nation.  Christians who are learning God’s Word and growing spiritually will prove to be the moral fabric of any community, and this will make a nation strong.  Mature Christians will reflect the highest and best virtues within a country, not the lowest and worst.  

Praying Hands       As Christians, we must get it into our thinking that our battle is spiritual (Eph. 6:12), not social or political.  That’s not to say that we do not speak truth to leaders when given the opportunity; certainly we do (Dan. 3:16-18; Acts 4:19-20; 5:28-29; 26:1-29)!  At times God will give us the ear of a human ruler, and we must take that opportunity to speak God’s truth and pray He moves the heart of the hearer.  However, “The church cannot defeat spiritual wickedness by overthrowing corrupt governments or legislating better laws and ordinances. The conflict is far greater than such efforts and calls for divine power for the victory.”[2]  As Christian’s living in America we should pray for our leaders (1 Tim. 2:1-2), strive to be upstanding citizens (Rom. 13:1-7; Tit. 3:1; 1 Pet. 2:13-14), help the needy in our communities (Acts 20:35; 1 Thess. 5:14), and above all, share the gospel and preach God’s Word (John 3:16; 1 Cor. 15:3-4; 2 Tim. 4:1-2).

Steven R. Cook, M. Div.

[1] D. A. Carson, How Long, O Lord? Reflections on Suffering and Evil, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2006), 89.

[2]Allen P. Ross, Creation and blessing: A guide to the study and exposition of Genesis (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1998), 301

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God Loves Israel

     God loves Israel, declaring, “I have loved you with an everlasting love; therefore I have drawn you with lovingkindness” (Jer. 31:3). God is eternal, and His love is eternal. To possess the love of God is to love that which he loves. One cannot claim to have God’s love, and simultaneously hate Israel, His chosen people. There is no place for anti-Semitism in the heart of any Christian.

     Israel FlagTo love Israel is not a blanket endorsement of all their beliefs and behaviors. God, who loves Israel and chose them to be His people (Deut. 7:6-8), also called them to be holy (Ex. 19:5-6; Lev. 11:45), and promised blessing or cursing, based on their obedience to Him (Deut. 28:1-68). Israel can and does fail, often rejecting God’s love for them and walking in the ways of the world (see 2 Chron. 36:15-16; Jer. 7:25-26; 25:4-7; Ezek. 16; Matt. 23:1-39; Acts 7:51-53; 1 Thess. 2:14-16). The national rejection and crucifixion of Jesus (Matt. 27:22-23; Acts 2:22-23; 4:27-28), Israel’s promised Messiah (Deut. 18:15; Isa. 7:14; 9:6-7;53; 61:1; Matt. 1:1, 17; Luke 1:31-33), is their greatest failure. Did Israel act alone in crucifying Jesus, their Messiah? No! God foretold Israel’s Messiah would suffer and die (Ps. 22:11-18; Isa. 53); and, according to His sovereignty, He used wicked men, both Jews and Gentiles, to accomplish His will (Acts 22:22-23; 4:27-28).

If it be inquired, as constantly it is, who put Christ to death? It may be pointed out that He was offered by the Father (Ps. 22:15; John 3:16; Rom. 3:25), of His own free will (John 10:17; Heb. 7:27; 9:14; 10:12), by the Spirit (Heb. 9:14), and by men—Herod, Pilate, the Gentiles, and Israel (Acts 2:23; 4:27). To this may be added that part of His death was contributed by Satan (cf. Gen. 3:15).[1]

     God, who loves Israel with an everlasting love, continues to keep His word to them. Israel has a future hope because of the promises and covenants God made through the patriarchs and prophets (Gen. 12:1-3; 15:18; 17:8; Deut. 30:1-10; 2 Sam. 7:16; Ps. 89:33-37; Jer. 31:31-33). Though unbelieving Israel is currently under divine discipline (Matt. 23:37-39), God’s covenants and promises are still in effect (Rom. 9:1-5), and will remain in force until Jesus returns and is accepted as their Messiah.

     It is wrong to think the church has replaced Israel, for “God has not rejected His people whom He foreknew” (Rom. 11:2), even though there is a “partial hardening” among them until Messiah returns (Rom. 11:25-27). Until then, unbelieving Israel is under spiritual darkness and divine judgment. The apostle Paul—a biological Jew himself—revealed that God’s promises and covenants are still valid for national Israel, and wished all would come to faith in Christ.

I am telling the truth in Christ, I am not lying, my conscience testifies with me in the Holy Spirit, that I have great sorrow and unceasing grief in my heart [for unbelieving Israel]. For I could wish that I myself were accursed, separated from Christ for the sake of my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh [to whom Paul is related biologically], who are Israelites, to whom belongs the adoption as sons, and the glory and the covenants and the giving of the Law and the temple service and the promises, whose are the fathers, and from whom is the Christ according to the flesh [i.e. Messiah], who is over all, God blessed forever. Amen. (Rom. 9:1-5)

     Today, Jews and Gentiles alike, become partakers of the church, the body of Christ, when they believe in Jesus as their Savior (Gal. 3:26-28; Eph. 1:22-23; cf. 1 Cor. 10:32). The church is looking forward to the return of Christ, in which He will catch away (ἁρπάζω harpazo – to seize, catch up, snatch away) Christians to heaven (1 Thess. 4:13-17). Until God resumes His prophetic plans for Israel, the Christian is called to love them, pray for them, and share the gospel of grace that they may turn to Jesus as the Christ and be saved (Rom. 1:16; 1 Cor. 1:18-24; 15:3-4).

Steven R. Cook, M. Div.

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[1] Lewis S. Chafer, “Christology” in Systematic Theology, Vol. 7 (Grand Rapids, MI., Kregel Publications, 1993), 80.

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