Once, when I was working in jail ministry, I met a Christian man who told me about his older brother’s death. The incident, he said, had occurred several years earlier. He and his brother were drinking and arguing one afternoon when a fist fight erupted and the older brother fell backwards onto a metal pipe that pierced his heart. The man did all he could to save his brother, but the wound was fatal. His brother, whom he loved, was suddenly gone, and for years he carried the image of his brother’s lifeless body, held in his blood-soaked hands. Tears rolled down his face as he recalled the event. Over time he was able to resolve some of his grief, but while talking with me, he expressed a lingering concern about his brother’s eternal destiny. He was not sure if his brother would spend eternity in heaven or hell. Though his brother claimed to be a Christian, and family and friends spoke well of him at the funeral, the reality was that his brother’s life never reflected the virtues of Christ. Though I could not offer any assurance about his brother’s eternal destiny, I encouraged him to live his life in such a way that when he died, he would not leave his loved ones with any question about the place of Christ in his own life.
Often we do not know how or when we will die, and if the Lord tarries in His return, we will all face death, in some form or another. Death is an uncomfortable subject, but for those who trust in the Lord, it need not be. God knows how frail we are, “He is mindful that we are but dust” (Ps. 103:14). David courageously asked the Lord, “Make me to know my end and what is the extent of my days; let me know how transient I am. Behold, You have made my days short in length, and my lifetime as nothing in Your sight; surely every man at his best is a mere breath” (Ps. 39:4-5). Job too perceived the brevity of his life and declared, “I will not live forever…for my days are but a breath” (Job 7:16), and James wrote, “you are just a vapor that appears for a little while and then vanishes away” (Jam. 4:14b). Leaving this world is inevitable; where we spend eternity is optional. God loves us and sent His Son into the world that He would provide eternal life for us.
For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life. For God did not send the Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world might be saved through Him. (John 3:16-17)
Death was introduced into God’s creation when the first human, Adam, sinned against God. Adam’s sin immediately brought spiritual death (Gen. 2:15-17; 3:1-8), and later, physical death (Gen. 5:5). Though Adam was made spiritually alive again (Gen. 3:21), his single sin introduced death, in every form, into the world (Rom. 5:12-14; 1 Cor. 15:21-22). The universe itself groans, being effected by sin, waiting for its redemption (Rom. 8:20-22; cf. 2 Pet. 3:13; Rev. 21:1). Death means separation. Three major kinds of death are mentioned in Scripture:
- Spiritual death, which is separation from God in time. Spiritually dead people continue to live until they die physically (Gen. 2:16-17; 3:1-8; 5:5; Eph. 2:1; Col. 2:13).
- Physical death, which is the separation of the soul from the body (Eccl. 12:7; 2 Cor. 5:8). According to Scripture, “death is not the end of human existence, but a change of place or conditions in which conscious existence continues.”
- Eternal death (biblically called the “second death”), which is the perpetuation of physical and spiritual death into eternity (Rev. 20:11-15).
All persons born into this world are physically alive, but spiritually dead, separated from God, because of Adam’s sin. The Bible reveals, “through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men, because all sinned [when Adam sinned]” (Rom. 5:12), and “in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive” (1 Cor. 15:22). Children and those who suffer from an intelligence deficit disorder are the exception, as they are not held responsible for Adam’s sin, and are assured heaven as their home (see Heaven Belongs to Little Children). Though we are all dead in Adam, God offers new life when we turn to Christ as Savior, reconciling us to Himself through the death of His Son (Rom. 5:1-2). Adam’s sin brought death, and Christ’s death brings life. In Adam I am guilty, in Christ I am righteous.
For the Christian, death is not the final victor in eternity. God created the soul to be forever united with the body. Therefore, God will resurrect each body that has died and will reunite it with each human soul. Every person, whether saved or unsaved, will receive a resurrection body that will live forever. “For the saved it involves eternal life or endless union and fellowship with God. For the unsaved it involves eternal existence in separation from God.” Only those who are born again—by the Spirit of God—have eternal life and will spend forever in heaven (1 Pet. 1:3, 23). Eternal life is received by grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ alone (John 3:16; 14:6; Acts 4:12; Gal. 2:16; Eph. 2:8-9; Tit. 3:5). We receive eternal life by trusting in the Lord Jesus Christ as our Savior, believing the gospel that He “died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and that He was buried, and that He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures” (1 Cor. 15:3-4). Eternal life “involves the endless continuance and perfection of blessedness and communion with God entered upon by the saved on the earth (cf. John 3:15–16; 6:40; 17:3; Rom. 2:7).” When the believer dies, he immediately goes into the presence of God. “Jesus promised the repentant thief on the cross that He would see paradise the very day of his death (Luke 23:43). Paul teaches that, for believers, being absent from the body means being present with Christ (2 Cor. 5:8).”
Scripture reveals God is sovereign over all His creation, either causing or permitting whatsoever comes to pass (see God’s Providence). From eternity past, God knows all things, and because He is sovereign, there are no accidental people or events in history. God creates life (Gen. 2:7; Job 1:21; Ps. 100:3; Acts 17:24-25; Rev. 11:11) and controls death (Gen. 2:16-17; 3:1-8; 6:17; 1 Sam. 2:6; 2 Kings 5:7; Luke 12:20; Rev. 1:18). The Lord declares, “See now that I, I am He, and there is no god besides Me; It is I who put to death and give life. I have wounded and it is I who heal” (Deut. 32:39). God holds final control over our life, from beginning to end, and preordains our days on the earth. David writes, “In Your book were all written the days that were ordained for me, when as yet there was not one of them” (Ps. 139:16). God’s sovereign control over life and death includes our responsible choices as volitional creatures. He desires that we think and act in conformity with His revealed will, but in many cases He permits us to act, either good or bad, and to reap the consequences of our choices. At physical death, all of life’s decisions are fixed for eternity, and what we do with Christ determines our eternal destiny (John 3:16-18; 1 Cor. 15:3-4; Eph. 2:8-9). It has been said that procrastination is the thief of time, and when one procrastinates about the gospel, it becomes the thief of souls. I encourage you not to delay concerning the gospel message, and to trust Christ as Savior today.
Steven R. Cook, M.Div.
- The Sin that Leads to Death
- Seven Kinds of Death in Scripture
- Heaven Belongs to Little Children
- The Biblical Resurrections
- Only What’s Done for Christ Will Last
- The House of Mourning
 E. McChesney, “Death”, in The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary, ed. Merrill F. Unger and R.K. Harrison, Rev. and updated ed. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1988).
 Merrill F. Unger, “Life”, in The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary, ed. R.K. Harrison, Rev. and updated ed. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1988).
 Russell D. Moore, “Death”, in Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, ed. Chad Brand, Charles Draper, Archie England et al. (Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers, 2003), 406.