Satan is at work in America, like he is in all the nations of the world. He is currently promoting a pseudo-spirituality and pseudo-morality which is rooted in his world-system which is antithetical to God and His Word. Because of Satan’s advances, America is in decline. This is no surprise, for he is a liar, a deceiver, and a destroyer. Most world leaders help advance Satan’s agenda, and many citizens follow along, or get caught in the cultural flow. Because we are fallen and inherently sinful, the natural proclivity of our hearts is pride, and Satan’s worldly values naturally resonate with each of us. Only the humble Christian who operates by divine viewpoint has the capacity to advance to spiritual maturity and to break free from Satan’s enslaving world-system. Furthermore, the advancing Christian helps others know about God’s liberating gospel of grace and biblical truths that form the basis for stability and purpose in life. However, as we advance spiritually, we continue to live in Satan’s world, which is systemically corrupt and always enticing or pressuring us to turn away from God. Satan’s world-system cannot be reformed or destroyed, but can only be resisted by the believer who is advancing to spiritual maturity. God will render Satan and his world-system inoperative at the Second Coming of Christ (Rev 19:11-21), at which time Jesus will rule over the earth for a thousand years (2 Sam 7:16; Psa 89:3-4, 35-37; Isa 9:6-7; Jer 23:5; 33:15; Luke 1:26-33; Matt 19:28; 25:31; Rev 20:1-7). After the millennial kingdom, God will cast Satan and his demonic forces into the Lake of Fire (Matt 25:41; Rev 20:10), where they will never bother anyone again. However, until that time, Satan’s rule and world-system will continue, and he will employ every strategy at his disposal to render us inoperative. Satan’s tactics are employed globally, with all the nations of the world. His globalist mindset and tactics are intended to weaken nations in order to keep them under his control. America is an exception to most nations because it was founded—for the most part—on biblical values. As a result, God has blessed our country greatly. We know more freedom and prosperity than any other nation on the planet at this time. However, America is under attack, and if Satan can undermine the nation’s values, convincing the majority to turn from God and live selfishly and sinfully, then we’ll forfeit our freedoms and blessings. Much of this article will focus on those areas where Satan is attacking to undermine those biblical values that make for stability in a nation.
But why is Satan free to oppose God and Christians? Why is he given permission to advance his agenda in the world? The truth is, God desires a loving and meaningful relationship with His creatures, and this is why He originally created angels and people with intellect, volition, and freedom. He did not create robots that function according to coded instructions. Having intellect and volition is meaningless if there is no freedom and opportunity to act. In order for people to exercise their minds and wills, God provides them opportunity to make choices. This was true of Lucifer when he was in heaven, and true for Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. Lucifer became prideful and corrupted his reason and produced sin and evil from the source of his own volition (Ezek 28:12-18; Isa 14:12-14). Satan also convinced a third of the angels to follow him in his rebellion (Rev 12:4, 7), and his kingdom of darkness was expanded to include the earth when he persuaded Adam and Eve to follow him rather than God (Gen 3:1-8). At the time of the fall, the first humans—God’s theocratic administrators (Gen 1:26-28)—gave Satan the title deed to the earth (Luke 4:6). This explains why Jesus referred to Satan as “the ruler of this world” (John 12:31; 14:30; 16:11). And other passages of Scripture call Satan “the god of this world” (2 Cor 4:4), and “the prince of the power of the air” (Eph 2:2), informing us “that the whole world lies in the power of the evil one” (1 John 5:19). But Satan is no benevolent dictator. Scripture reveals he rules as a tyrant who has “weakened the nations” (Isa 14:12), and currently “deceives the whole world” (Rev 12:9; cf. Rev 20:3). Satan rules by deception, oppression, and enslavement. And because he is a finite creature, he relies on others—fallen angels and people—to help him advance his agenda.
But the Bible also reveals that Satan does not operate with absolute freedom. Scripture reveals God is sovereign over His creation. He made it and He’s managing it; even though it’s not operating according to His original design. Obviously, God permits sin; and here one must distinguish between His directive-will, permissive-will, and overruling-will. God’s directive-will refers to His actively directing us to do what He expects. For the Christian, God’s directive-will is found in Scripture. His permissive-will refers to what He permits us to do, either for or against His directive-will. All sin falls under the category of God’s permissive-will, for He permits us to resist His directive-will in some instances. This is also true for fallen angels who are granted a measure of freedom to sin. God’s overruling-will refers to those occasions when He hinders us from sinning, or from sinning further, because His greater purposes take priority. The fall of Adam and Eve provide a good example of these categories, for God directed them not to eat from the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil (Gen 2:16-19), permitted them to disobey (Gen 3:1-7), and then drove them from the Garden of Eden, overruling their ability to go back in and eat from the tree of life (Gen 3:22-24).
Though God grants His creatures a modicum of freedom to resist His will, it should always be kept in mind that the sinfulness of fallen angels or people never threatens His sovereignty. Furthermore, God is never surprised, baffled, or frustrated by sin. According to God’s directive-will, He calls and empowers His people to live holy lives, separate from sin. In this way we are to partner with Him and help promote His solutions to this fallen world. Concerning God’s sovereignty, Louis Berkhof writes, “He is clothed with absolute authority over the hosts of heaven and the inhabitants of the earth. He upholds all things with His almighty power, and determines the ends which they are destined to serve. He rules as King in the most absolute sense of the word, and all things are dependent on Him and subservient to Him.” Though God is sovereign, He does not rule arbitrarily, but in accordance with His other attributes such as righteousness, justice, holiness, love, mercy, patience, and grace. As believers, we are encouraged that God is in sovereign control, for even though we experience sin, chaos, and evil (sometimes our own), we know He is directing history toward the return of Christ and His millennial kingdom, which is followed by the glorious eternal state. The Bible reveals “The LORD is King forever and ever” (Psa 10:16a). The “LORD has established His throne in the heavens, and His sovereignty rules over all” (Psa 103:19), and He “works all things after the counsel of His will” (Eph 1:11b). God is supreme over all His creation, for “Whatever the LORD pleases, He does, in heaven and in earth, in the seas and in all deeps” (Psa 135:6), and “He does according to His will in the host of heaven and among the inhabitants of earth; and no one can ward off His hand or say to Him, ‘What have You done?’” (Dan 4:35). Concerning God’s sovereignty and human volition, McChesney writes:
God is under no external restraint whatsoever. He is the Supreme Dispenser of all events. All forms of existence are within the scope of His dominion. And yet this is not to be viewed in any such way as to abridge the reality of the moral freedom of God’s responsible creatures or to make men anything else than the arbiters of their own eternal destinies. God has seen fit to create beings with the power of choice between good and evil. He rules over them in justice and wisdom and grace.
From Genesis to Revelation, God governs the lives of people and nations. Human rulers exist because of His plan, for “It is He who changes the times and the seasons; He removes kings and establishes kings; He gives wisdom to wise men and knowledge to men of understanding” (Dan 2:21). And people live and die as God decides, for “The LORD kills and makes alive; He brings down to Sheol and raises up” (1 Sam 2:6; cf. Acts 17:28). God has power over wealth and poverty, for “The LORD makes poor and rich; He brings low, He also exalts” (1 Sam 2:7). And He controls when and where people live in history, for “He made from one man every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined their appointed times and the boundaries of their habitation” (Acts 17:26). In addition to this, Scripture reveals God controls nature (Jon 1:4; Mark 4:39-41), plagues (Ex 11:1; Rev 16:10-11), famines (Gen 41:25-32), the roll of dice (Pro 16:33), blessing and adversity (Job 2:10; Isa 45:7), suffering (Job 1:1-21), divine calling (Jer 1:4-5; Gal 1:15) and the development of Christian character (Rom 5:2-5; 2 Cor 12:7-10; Jam 1:2-4). Lastly, God allows fallen angels and humans to produce sin and evil, but they never act beyond or against His sovereign will (Job 1:1-21; Psa 105:12-15; 1 Ki 22:19-23; 2 Cor 12:7-10). We are free to act, but only within the spheres of opportunity He creates and controls. For example, when Jesus was on trial, Pilate told Him, “I have authority to release You, and I have authority to crucify You” (John 19:10). But Jesus replied, “You would have no authority over Me, unless it had been given you from above” (John 19:11). Pilate had opportunity and authority to crucify Jesus, but only because heaven granted it to him. Ultimately, Pilate’s actions served the Father’s greater purpose of bringing His Son to the cross.
According to Scripture, we know there is a future hope, for God will eventually bring angelic and human rebellion to an end, and this will happen when Christ returns. God the Father has promised to give Jesus the kingdoms of this world, saying, “I will surely give the nations as Your inheritance, and the very ends of the earth as Your possession” (Psa 2:8; cf. Isa 2:1-5; Dan 2:44; 7:14). This will occur after the seven-year Tribulation; at which time it will be said, “The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ; and He will reign forever and ever” (Rev 11:15; cf. 20:1-3). However, until that time, God permits Satan to have his way in the world, albeit in a limited manner and for a limited time.
As Christians, there is opportunity for freedom and purpose in this world right now, but only if we’ll follow God by learning and living His Word. Jesus said, “You will know the truth, and the truth will make you free…[and] if the Son makes you free, you will be free indeed” (John 8:32, 36). The apostle Paul wrote, “It was for freedom that Christ set us free; therefore, keep standing firm and do not be subject again to a yoke of slavery…[and] you were called to freedom, brethren; only do not turn your freedom into an opportunity for the flesh, but through love serve one another” (Gal 5:1, 13). God offers us freedom from Satan and his kingdom of darkness. But this freedom exists only in relationship with God, and that because of the person and work of Christ who paid our sin debt and liberates us from our spiritual prison (Mark 10:45; Eph 1:7; Col 1:13-14). But for those who reject God’s way, they will continue to reside in Satan’s system. Where God directs mankind, it is always for good and not evil. Satan is a disrupter and destroyer, and his world-system is set up to attack God’s people, the gospel of grace, biblical truths and divine institutions that make for stable and productive individuals and societies. As Christians, we must realize there will be touchpoints where we are at odds with the culture around us, and there we must stand, with absolute clarity on biblical teaching. The purpose of this lesson is to set forth those areas where Satan is currently attacking in America, so that we can stand on the truth of God’s Word and know how we should respond when questioned or pressured to abandon those truths. In this way, we will be a good influence on those whom God places in our path. We will serve as lights in a dark world. The areas where Satan is attacking in America are as follows:
- The Bible as Divinely Authoritative. The Bible is the inerrant and infallible Word of God and is the basis for faith and conduct (1 Th 2:13; cf. 2 Tim 3:16-17). It teaches us how God brought the universe into existence (Gen 1:1-31), why people are special (Gen 1:26-28), how sin and evil came into being (Gen 3:1-7; Rom 5:12), how God has provided a solution to the sin problem (Gen 3:15; John 3:16; Mark 10:45; Acts 4:12; 1 Cor 15:3-4), how to live righteously through spiritual growth and obedience to His commands (Psa 119:9-11; Rom 6:11-14; Eph 4:11-16; Tit 2:11-14), that our future is certain because Christ is coming back (John 14:1-3; 1 Cor 15:51-53; 1 Th 4:13-18; Tit 2:13), Satan and his forces will be defeated (Rev 20:1-3; cf. Matt 25:41; Rev 20:10), Christ will rule on the earth for a thousand years (Luke 1:31-33; Rev 20:4), and afterwards God will create new heavens and a new earth (2 Pet 3:13). Satan’s world is systemically corrupt and hateful toward the Bible and seeks to suppress it, or pervert its meaning, to keep people enslaved in darkness.
- Christian Identity. As those who have believed in Jesus as Savior (1 Cor 15:3-4), we are no longer “in Adam”, but are “in Christ” (1 Cor 15:22; cf. 2 Cor 5:17). At the moment of faith in Christ, God “rescued us from the domain of darkness, and transferred us to the kingdom of His beloved Son, in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins” (Col 1:13-14). As believers, we are “children of God” (John 1:12), brothers and sisters to the King of kings and Lord of lords, which means we belong to the royal family of God. In addition, we have a new citizenship in heaven (Phil 3:20), we are a kingdom of priests to God (Rev 1:6), and ambassadors of Christ who represent Him to a fallen world (2 Cor 5:20). Because of our new position in Christ, we are encouraged “to walk in a manner worthy of the calling with which you have been called” (Eph 4:1). As Christians, our spiritual identity supersedes all other forms of identity; especially those that are artificially manufactured on humanistic philosophies and values that are antithetical to biblical teaching (i.e., an identity connected with a political party, social or economic status, racial group, etc.).
- Devotion to God and Learning His Word. God calls us to know His Word so that we will have the knowledge necessary to live His will (Psa 1:1-3; Ezra 7:10; 2 Tim 2:15). The world will use every pleasure or pressure as obstacles to keep us ignorant of God’s Word (2 Cor 11:3), in order to keep us spiritually malnourished and ineffective in our spiritual influence.
- Pursuit of Spiritual Growth. God desires that we mature as Christians by living His Word in all aspects of our lives (Eph 4:11-15; 1 Pet 2:2). Spiritual growth takes time, as we make consistent choices to gather together as Christians (Heb 10:24-25), study the Bible (Acts 2:42), and encourage each other to godly living (1 Th 5:11; Heb 3:13).
- Sharing the Gospel. We are to share the gospel that others might believe in Christ as Savior (John 3:16; Acts 4:12; 1 Cor 15:3-4). Satan seeks to blind the minds of the unbelieving (2 Cor 4:3-4), who regard the good news as foolishness (1 Cor 1:18). However, “the gospel…is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes” (Rom 1:16). And once saved, God rescues us “from the domain of darkness” and transfers us “to the kingdom of His beloved Son” (Col 1:13). Satan will promote religion, which convinces people that God requires good works to be saved. World religions—even those based on the Bible—help advance Satan’s evil agenda, because it keeps people ignorant of the gospel of grace and enslaved in his kingdom. Good works do not save. They never have and never will. Salvation is always by grace alone (Rom 3:23-24; Eph 2:8-9), and applied to ungodly sinners who, by faith alone, trust in Christ as Savior (Rom 3:28; 4:1-5; 5:6-10; Gal 3:26). Good works should follow salvation (Eph 2:10; Tit 2:11-14), but they are never the condition of it (Gal 2:16, 21; 3:11, 21).
- Personal Responsibility. As Christians, we are to live responsibly to the Lord (Gen 1:26-28; 2:15; 19-20; Jam 1:17; 1 Pet 4:10). Advancing to maturity begins when we own our lives and accept responsibility for the choices we make. Furthermore, we must accept those things that come into our lives by the providence of God. Some blessings and difficulties come to us, not because of choices we make, but because of God or other people. We welcome blessings, but often struggle with difficulties. Both are ultimately under God’s sovereign control (Job 2:10; Isa 45:5-7). It’s normal that we ask God to remove difficulties; however, what He does not remove, He intends for us to deal with (2 Cor 12:7-10). This requires a faith response (Heb 10:38; 11:6; Jam 1:2-4). However, we observe in American culture a victim mentality that tells us we are the products of evolution, history, culture, nature and/or nurture, and that we are not responsible for our desires, values, or behaviors. Christian maturity begins when we accept full responsibility for our lives and begin to make good choices to learn and live God’s Word on a consistent basis.
- Marriage as a Divine Institution. Marriage is clearly defined in Scripture as being between one man and one woman (Gen 2:24; Matt 19:6). However, marriage is being redefined and modified as though it were merely a social construct to be tinkered with. This is why we see a rise in divorce, as well as the introduction of same-sex marriage and polyamorous relationships. Some wicked people may even push to normalize pedophilia and bestiality.
- Family as a Divine Institution. The family is the smallest social unit intended to train succeeding generations for godliness and authority orientation (Deut 6:6-7; Eph 6:4). However, many states are undermining parental authority and responsibility for the training of children, by which Christian values are transmitted.
- Human Government as a Divine Institution. Human government is a divine institution with delegated authority to promote freedom, order, and to protect citizens from evil (Gen 9:5-6; Rom 13:1-5; Tit 3:1-2; 1 Pet 2:13-17). We are directed to submit to good government; however, the American government is moving beyond its legitimate authority and human freedoms are diminishing.
- God’s Creation of the Universe, Earth, and People in Six Literal Days. The Bible, plainly read and understood, teaches that God created the universe, earth, plants, animals, and people in six literal days (Gen 1:1—2:4; Ex 20: 9-11; Isa 45:12). Everything was created perfect and in a state of maturity.
- People as Made in the Image of God. The Bible reveals we are special, made in the image of God (Gen 1:27; 9:6), with the ability to think, act, and feel in ways that place us above the rest of creation. Evolutionary teaching predominates in our culture, which promotes the idea that people are the product of matter, motion, time and chance. The result is that people are seen as purely material beings, biological entities whose thoughts, feelings, identity, and aspirations can be reduced to electro-chemical impulses in the brain and body. Mankind just becomes a naked ape, an animal with no greater value than a bird, a fish, or a worm on a hook. But Scripture reveals people are special, made in the image of God, and have greater value than the rest of creation (Matt 10:29-31).
- One Human Race. Biblically, there is only one human race (Gen 1:27; 9:18-19; Acts 17:26). The idea of multiple races confuses and divides people in harmful ways, allowing for racist ideologies. Certainly, there are different ethnic groups, languages, and cultures, but all humanity constitutes one race. This is true for the gospel, for Christ died for all people, and this assumes everyone is part of the same human race and savable.
- God Created Two Genders. Biblically, there are only two genders, male and female (Gen 1:27). However, today there are teachings that gender is a matter of personal choice, and not a matter of divine design.
- Life Begins in the Womb at Conception. The Bible teaches that human life begins at conception (Psa 139:13; Isa 44:24; Jer 1:5), not at a later time outside the womb. This means babies in the womb are full persons, and to abort a baby is a choice to end its human life prematurely. Abortion is murder, and murder is wrong.
- Israel as the Covenant People of God. God created Israel when He called Abraham and entered into a unilateral covenant with him, promising him and his descendants the land of Canaan (Gen 12:1-3; Isa 43:1; cf. Gen 15:18; 17:8; Josh 1:2-4). Israel was created by God and cannot cease to exist (Isa 43:1, 15; Jer 31:35-37). Though Israel is currently under divine discipline (Matt 23:37-38), God has a future for His people and national Israel will be restored (Rom 9:1-5). Paul tells us, “a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in; and so, all Israel will be saved” (Rom 11:25b-26a).
- The Christian Church. The Christian Church was created by God and cannot be destroyed (Matt 16:18). The Church consists of born-again believers (Eph 1:22-23; 1 Pet 2:5), who assemble locally (Heb 10:25), have laws (1 Cor 9:21; Gal 6:2), and leaders (1 Tim 5:17). The primary purpose of the church is to glorify God (Eph 1:12), share the Gospel (1 Cor 15:3-4), make disciples (Matt 28:18-20), edify believers through biblical teaching (Eph 4:11-16), and do good to others (Luke 6:35; Gal 6:10; 1 Tim 6:17-19). The two ordinances of the Church are baptism (Matt 28:19) and the Lord’s Supper (Luke 22:19-20; 1 Cor 11:23-34). However, the Christian Church is increasingly coming under attack by individuals, organizations, and states who desire to render it uninfluential or inoperative.
- Freedom. God desires that we be free, both physically and spiritually, as this provides us the opportunity to exercise our volitions in godly ways (Gal 5:1, 13; 1 Pet 2:16). However, some people prefer servitude to freedom because they fear personal responsibility and like the idea of someone else making choices for them, watching over and caring for them. This mindset opens the door for tyranny.
- Nationalism. God has separated the nations of the world in order to hinder the advancement of evil and human tyranny. He divided the nations by multiplying languages and confusing the efforts of defiant persons, as these tried to build the Tower of Babel by using His language and resources independently of His wishes (Gen 11:1-9). Today, many would like to see a one world government, but Christians should oppose it, realizing it’s God’s will that national boundaries exist (Acts 17:26).
As Christians, we are called to proclaim the message of Christianity and to win people with words, never social or political force. We have failed as Christians as soon as we seek to politicize our message and control others through legislative means. If Christians want to have a lasting impact on a nation, it must be done at the grassroots level through evangelization and biblical teaching, not legislation. It must be accomplished through sharing the gospel and teaching Christian virtues that are applied to all of life, not by a forced morality imposed through the halls of congress.
Historically, Christians in America have been a positive influence in society by promoting law and being charitable to the needy (Gal 2:10; Jam 1:27). They’ve built schools, hospitals, orphanages and other helpful organizations that lift man up. They’ve fed the hungry, cared for the sick, housed the homeless, provided for widows and orphans, and visited prisoners with the gospel. Christians have also promoted art, literature, music and science. Certainly, there have been abuses in the name of Christianity; however, the historical record speaks favorably about Christian service. For the most part, believers have obeyed Scripture and become law abiding citizens rather than rebels. Scripture teaches Christians to think of government as a “minister of God” (Rom 13:4), to obey leaders (Rom 13:1, 5; Tit 3:1; 1 Pet 2:13-15), pay taxes (Rom 13:6), regard rulers as “servants of God” who do His will (Rom 13:6), and to pray for them (1 Tim 2:1-2). We realize there is a legitimate sense in which the leaders of this world accomplish God’s purposes by keeping harmony and promoting justice (Rom 13:2-4; 6-7). We do not blindly submit to their authority and should say no to governmental leaders when they command us to go against the commands of God (see Dan 3:1-18; 6:1-13; Acts 4:19-20; 5:28-29). The Christian obeys or defies human authority only as the Bible directs. Ultimately, those who obey God’s Word prove to be a blessing that promotes righteousness within a nation. Christians who are learning God’s Word and growing spiritually will prove to be the moral fabric of any community, and this will make a nation strong. Mature Christians will reflect the highest and best virtues within a country, not the lowest and worst.
In closing, we should realize our primary battle is spiritual and not physical (Eph 6:12). Our responsibility is to keep ourselves unstained by the world (2 Cor 6:14-18; Jam 1:27), to pray for our enemies (Matt 5:44), and witness for Christ that others might believe the gospel and be saved (John 3:16; Acts 4:12; 1 Cor 15:3-4; Eph 2:8-9). The Bible is our sword by which we destroy spiritual and intellectual strongholds, within ourselves and others (2 Cor 10:3-5). The Christian is to get along with others, showing tolerance (Rom 12:17-18), except when it comes to something that harms our walk with God, and then we must stand firm (Rom 13:13-14; 1 John 2:15-17). At times God will give us the ear of a human ruler (Dan 3:16-18; Acts 4:19-20; 5:28-29; 26:1-29), and we must take that opportunity to speak God’s truth and pray He moves the heart of the hearer. As American citizens we should vote for leaders that promote laws consistent with God’s values. And we should always pray for our leaders (1 Tim 2:1-2), strive to be upstanding citizens (Rom 13:1-7; Tit 3:1; 1 Pet 2:13-14), help the needy in our communities (Acts 20:35; 1 Thess. 5:14), and above all, share the gospel and preach God’s Word (John 3:16; 1 Cor 15:3-4; 2 Tim 4:1-2). Just laws will align with regenerate and humble hearts. But if the majority with the country turn from God and His values, then it’s only a matter of time before corruption leads to destruction. Considering America’s spiritual and moral decline, the abortion of more than 65,000,000 babies, our national debt, lack of authority orientation, the advancement of Socialistic and Communistic ideologies, civil unrest, the normalization of sexual perversion, the undermining of the family, attacks on Christians and churches, and other problems, it seems only a matter of time before God’s judgment falls upon our nation. My prayer is that we may yet turn our nation back to God and begin to operate on the biblical values that made America exceptional. May God help us.
Dr. Steven R. Cook
- The Gospel Explained
- Satan as the Ruler of the World
- Satan’s Evil World-System
- Satan’s Strategies to Defeat God’s People
- Steps to Spiritual Growth
- Standing Against the Forces of Darkness
- The Bible as Divine Revelation
- Guard Your Heart
- Helping the Poor
- When the Wicked Prosper
- The Righteous Lifestyle of the Believer
- Living in Babylon
 An example is found in the Pharisees who saw themselves as children of God (John 8:41b), but Jesus correctly identified them as children of the devil (John 8:44a). The Pharisees learned Scripture (Matt 23:1-6); however, their application of it was evil, as they used it as a means of salvation, which God never intended (Gal 2:16, 21; 3:11, 21). Salvation is always by grace (Rom 3:23-24; Eph 2:8-9), and applied to ungodly sinners who, by faith alone, trust in Christ as Savior (Rom 3:28; 4:1-5; 5:6-10; Gal 3:26). God’s moral laws are intended for those who are saved. Good works should follow salvation, but they are never the cause of it. Because of their pseudo-spirituality and pseudo-morality, the Pharisees were “hypocrites” (Matt 23:13-15), “blind guides” (Matt 23:16-19), who “neglect justice and mercy and faithfulness” (Matt 23:23), and on the inside “are full of robbery and self-indulgence” (Matt 23:25), and “all uncleanness” (Matt 23:27), and “are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness” (Matt 23:28).
 Louis Berkhof, Systematic Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans publishing co., 1938), 76.
 E. McChesney, “Sovereignty of God,” ed. Merrill F. Unger and R.K. Harrison, The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary (Chicago: Moody Press, 1988).